FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOPHYSICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOPHYSICS

Discipline: Geophysics

Level: Basic

Duration: 5 days

Instructor(s): Juan Klimowitz

Purpose

Understand basic concepts, knows the main geophysical methods used in exploration, their applications and their limitations. For land-and-marine acquisition and processing process.

Designed

Designed for:

Beginners geoscientists, geophysics, geology, petrophysics, engineers, reservoir, production.

You will learn

How to:

  • Knows the main geophysical methods used in exploration, their applications and their limitations.
  • Understands the basic concepts of seismic wave propagation, reflection, diffraction and refraction.
  • Knows in broad terms how 3D seismic land-and marine data is acquired. Knows in broad terms how seismic data is processed.
  • Knows how seismic data can be linked to geology by using well data.
  • Knows how seismic data can be converted from time to depth.
  • Knows how 2D-seismic data is interpreted and how horizon maps are made.
  • Knows how 3D-seismic data is interpreted and how horizon maps are produced.

Content

Introduction to Geophysics

  • The Objective.
  • The Limitations.
  • Inversion of Data.
  • The Importance of Different Survey Methods
  • The Gravity Method
  • The Magnetic Method
  • The Basic Seismic System
  • The Seismic Objective

Seismic Waves

  • Reflections
  • Diffractions
  • Refractions
  • Ground-Roll
  • Multiples
  • Reflection Coefficient
  • … Various small exercises

Data Acquisition

  • Seismic Sources
  • Seismic Receivers
  • Seismic Spreads
  • Key Parameters in 3D-Seismic Acquisition
  • … Video on Land and Marine Acquisition

Data Processing

  • Processing Objective
  • Main Processing Steps

The Link between Seismic and Well Information

  • Overview Well Calibration
  • Well Shoot
  • Sonic and Density Logs
  • Synthetic Seismograms
  • … Exercises on well calibration

Time to Depth Conversion

  • Overview Depth Conversion
  • Velocity Information
  • Depth Conversion Methods
  • Limitations of the Various Methods
  • … Exercises on depth conversion

2D-Seismic Interpretation

  • The Seismic Interpretation Objective
  • Identification and Interpretation of Geologic Horizons
  • How to Create a Horizon Map?
  • Fault Interpretation
  • Practical Interpretation Exercises of 2 Horizons

3D-Seismic Interpretation

  • The Difference between 2D-and 3D-Seismic Interpretation Methods
  • Interpretation Principles of 3D-Seismic data
  • The use of Time Slices
  • Fault Interpretation in 3D-Seismic
  • Practical Interpretation Exercises of 2 Horizons
  • The Extraction and the Use of Seismic Attributes
  • Case History on a Full-Scale 3D-Seismic Interpretation

Software applications:

  • Microsoft Office

Text and consulting books:

  • Brown A., 1999: Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data: AAPG Memoir 42, Fifth Edition, ISBN 0-89181-352-7
  • Labo J., 1992: A Practical Introduction to Borehole Geophysics: Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Tulsa Oklahoma, ISBN 0-931830-39-7
  • McQuillin R., Bacon M., Barclay W., 1984: An Introduction to Seismic Interpretation: Graham & Trotman Ltd., ISBN 0-86010­496-6
  • Schlumberger 1991: Log Interpretation Principles/Applications: Schlumberger Educational Services, Houston, Texas, Order No. SMP-7017
  • Sheriff R.E., 1991: Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Exploration Geophysics, Third Edition: Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Tulsa Oklahoma, ISBN 1-56080-018-6
  • Stone D. G., 1994: Designing Seismic Surveys in Two and Three Dimensions: Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Tulsa Oklahoma, ISBN 1-56080-073-9
  • Yilmaz 0.,1987: Seismic Data Processing: Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Tulsa Oklahoma, ISBN 0-931830-40-09

Discipline: Geophysics

Level: Basic

Duration: 5 days

Instructor(s): Juan Klimowitz

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